Commonwealth of Independent States

CIS flag

CIS flag

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed by Russia, Belarus and Ukraine in 1991 following dissolution of the Soviet Union. Its membership includes nine (originally 12) of the original 15 independent states that emerged following the dissolution of the Soviet Union:

  • Armenia

  • Azerbaijan

  • Belarus

  • Kazakhstan

  • Kyrgyzstan

  • Moldova

  • Russia

  • Tajikistan

  • Uzbekistan

The CIS was conceived as a successor to the USSR in coordinating foreign and economic policies of its member states. Its headquarters are located in Minsk, the capital city of Belarus, and Sergei Lebedev has been chairman of its Executive Committee since 2007. 

The Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) chose not to join. Ukraine and Turkmenistan signed the CIS charter in 1991, but they did not ratify the document. While Turkmenistan is an associate state, Ukraine ended its participation in the CIS statutory bodies in 2018. Georgia withdrew from membership in 2008, following the war with Russia.

Tashkent Treaty

The receptivity of members to integration or even coordination with Russia has varied widely. The CIS formed a collective security treaty, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, signed in Tashkent in 1992 by Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia signing the following year. However, when the treaty came up for renewal in 1999, only six states remained with Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan withdrawing. Moldova, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine never signed the Tashkent Treaty and have refused to participate in its activities.


Some CIS forces have supplemented Russian troops along the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Elsewhere in the region CIS peacekeeping operations have been composed almost exclusively of Russian forces. The CIS also includes non-security groups, such as the Eurasian Economic Community.

The CIS created an election observation mission in 2002, which has often reached diametrically opposed conclusions to those reached by ODIHR concerning elections in post-Soviet states.