Preparatory meetings


Helsinki 1972-1973


The Helsinki Final Act was signed at Finlandia Hall, designed by Alvar Aalto. (APA-Images/Lehtikuva)

The Helsinki Final Act was signed at Finlandia Hall, designed by Alvar Aalto. (APA-Images/Lehtikuva)

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) negotiations opened with 35 delegations present including: The United States, Canada, and all the states of Europe (including the USSR and Holy See), with the exception of Albania. These states tended to coalesce into three major groups, reflecting the existing political alignments at the time:


  • Warsaw Pact

  • NATO / European Community

  • Neutral / Nonaligned


The preparatory meeting resulted in a detailed outline of the practical organizational arrangements for the conference.