The OSCE has frequently promoted long-term peace and security in regions where conflicts have occurred and where a political settlement has been achieved, but where war and violence have left a legacy of hatred and bitterness, so that peace remains conditional. In a number of these cases, the OSCE mission entered after a long period of widespread violence, death, and destruction, and thus had to deal with the distrust and hatred that still existed among different ethno-national groups within the population.
The most important of these missions have been the ones in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia that were established following the 1995 Dayton Accords bringing an end to those violent conflicts, as well as the OSCE Mission in Kosovo, which also entered following the war in the spring of 1999 in which Kosovo came under exclusive international administration. The OSCE also played a role in post-conflict security building in Albania, following a collapse of the government in 1997 that led to a brief period of anarchy in what essentially became a failed state.
This section describes some techniques used by field operations in post-conflict security building, and provides some examples of field operations that focus on these areas.