Organized non-violence

Kosovo Albanian's set up parallel administration

Milošević's regime set about eliminating Albanian employees from state institutions, including schools, hospitals, factories, and public administration. Kosovo's Albanian political leaders resisted. In 1989, Ibrahim Rugova founded the Democratic League of Kosova (LDK), and in1990, with wide support declared Kosovo a republic. This established a "parallel administration" in Kosovo.


Ibrahim Rugova (U.S Department of State)

In September 1991, Rugova's parallel administration organized an underground referendum which received overwhelming support for independence. In the elections that followed, LDK dominated the new parliament, and Rugova became president. The "shadow state" offered employment and services to Kosovo's Albanians who had lost their jobs and who were increasingly treated as second-class citizens by the Serbian authorities.

Kosovo's Albanian population reacted with non-violence

Under Rugova's leadership, Kosovo's Albanian population preached and practiced non-violence. As Yugoslavia moved to a break-up, the two sectors of Kosovo -- a Serb-dominated official administration, and a rival Albanian society and parallel administration -- rarely clashed and little violence occurred.

Bush Administration warning to Milosovic

A clear message from the first Bush Administration to Milošević also served to temporarily curb potential Serbian repression by making clear that such actions would be met by U.S. intervention.