The Turko-Persian civilization

During the reign of Ulug-Bek, the Uzbeks were advancing into the region from the north. In 1431, the Uzbek tribal leader Abul Khayr Khan took Khwarazm (Khiva). In 1450 he married a granddaughter of Timur, thereby forming an alliance with the Mongol nobility. His grandson Abdal-Latif Khan was the first Uzbek khan to rule in Samarkand, in the first half of the 16th century.

Uzbek tribes settle and mix with peoples of Transoxiana

As their khans rose to power, the previously nomadic Uzbek tribes began to settle and to mix with the other peoples of Transoxiana. The result was a Turko-Persian civilization that combined Turkic and Persian elements. Court politics were conducted in the Turkic language called Chagatai, while Persian was the language of literature and scholarship.

Alisher Navoi (1441-1501), considered the father of Uzbek literature, lived in this period.

1860s - 1870s conquered by Czarist Russia

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Uzbek khanate declined, fragmenting into the smaller kingdoms of the Bukharan Emirate, the Khivan Khanate, and the Kokand Khanate. In the 1860s and 1870s, Czarist Russia conquered the region.