Under Russian and Soviet rule

Karabakh was incorporated into Soviet Azerbaijan in July 1921.

Karabakh's status was an issue to Armenians throughout the Soviet period. At various times Karabakh Armenians addressed petitions to the Soviet authorities pleading for transfer of the territory to Armenia. They complained that their cultural and economic needs were neglected, that they were cut off from contact with their fellow Armenians in the Armenian SSR, and that the leadership of the Azerbaijan SSR was encouraging Azerbaijanis to settle in Karabakh with a view to shifting the demographic balance against them.